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Measuring distance, often also called displacement describes measuring the distance between 2 points. This distance is defined in the measuring technique by the distance of the sensor from the target. Thus, the distance measurement can also be designated as displacement, distance or position measurement. Displacement measurements in geometric measuring technology can be found in almost all application areas. Different criteria are included for the selection of the appropriate sensor for displacement measurements. The frequency of the distance change can be quasi static or high frequency and determines the measuring speed of the sensor. Contacting / non-contact Measurement range (displacement change in mm µm) Accuracy of the respective displacement position

Hur positioneras autonoma transportsystem på ett perfekt sätt?

Sensorer i optoNCDT 1220-serien stöder kollisionsfri positionering av automatiserade styrda fordon (AGV) och autonoma mobila robotar (AMR) med Mecanum-hjul.

De kompakta lasersensorerna med 500 mm mätområde monteras på AGV/AMR. De mäter exakt AGV:s/AMR:s avstånd på ett metriskt kodband som sedan utvärderas av en PGV-kamera. Med hjälp av lasersensorernas bestämda avståndsvärde kan PGV-kameran tillförlitligt läsa kodbandet och avkoda AGV/AMR:s exakta position. Detta möjliggör i sin tur kollisionsfri, lateral dockning av det autonoma fordonet.


  • Oberoende av AGV/AMR och därmed universellt tillämpbar
  • FTS/AMR kan bytas ut för serviceändamål utan att man behöver kalibrera om hållplatserna
  • Exakt lasersensor för beröringsfri och slitagefri mätning med stort mätområde för tillförlitlig positionsbestämning
  • Slank och robust sensorkonstruktion - perfekt för integrering

Compensating for axial extension of milling spindles

When processing materials using milling spindles (mainly motorised spindles), the demands for high precision are continuously increasing. In order to compensate for the axial extension of the spindle caused by thermal heating and centrifugal forces, the eddyNCDT SGS4701 measures the displacement deviation of the spindle.


Load detection in washing machines

With modern washing machines, energy efficiency and environmental protection are becoming increasingly important. In order to achieve optimum results, the load must be measured before the washing starts. This load measurement enables an optimum and maximum load for the machine to be determined, as well as the appropriate dosage of detergent. This reduces operating costs, while also protecting the environment. A direct weight measurement using e.g. load cells is expensive. An indirect measurement of the damper displacement is much more cost effective. Micro-Epsilon offers low cost solutions for displacement measurement in high volume production, namely the magneto-inductive MDS-40-LP-F displacement sensor, which is directly integrated in the damper.


Measuring system for strip position monitoring in a coating tank

In the electrolytic refinement of thin sheets electrical losses are minimised by a small distance between strip and anode. This requires exact strip guidance. Before the strip enters the coating tank it is guided and measured between two measuring bars with nine eddy-current sensors each. Actuators are initiated and change the position of the anodes in accordance with the strip geometry, or initiate a return to the starting position if limit values are exceeded.


Experimental tests on a drop impact tester

In the automotive industry manufacturers go to great lengths to improve the passive safety of all vehicles in a collision. The so-called crash absorbers join the fenders with

the longitudinal bearers and taken overall they can absorb energy through fixed bumpers and plastic deformation. In addition, attempts are made to reduce the vehicle weight through new designs and the use of new materials. The effect of the actual accident event can be replicated on special drop impact testers. Through the variation of the dropped weight and the height, the impact speed can reach 12.5 m/s (45 km/h). Apart from the force, the deformation is recorded during the collision with a fast triangulation sensor.


Active suspension cylinder

Modern mobile cranes are always employed when heavy loads must be lifted quickly and at various locations. They are used, for example, in the recovery of broken down trucks. The field of operation is not restricted to paved surfaces, but also includes deployment in open terrain. Therefore, these cranes possess an adaptive design of running gear in which the suspension of each independent axle can be adapted to the relevant terrain. This is implemented using a suspension cylinder which is fitted with a displacement sensor. The sensor acquires the cylinder stroke and consequently enables the best possible adaptation to the form of the terrain.


Exakt positionering av kirurgiska mikroskop

Kirurgiska ingrepp kräver en perfekt bild av operationsområdet. Här stöds kirurgen ofta av ett kirurgiskt mikroskop. För att kirurgen ska kunna placera mikroskopet optimalt och ge kirurgiteamet mer utrymme att röra sig på är mikroskopoptiken monterad på ett stativ med långa armar.


Overhead conveyor distance

Overhead conveyors which move automatically through the production process on a rail are used for the transportation of many components. A certain minimum distance is required so that components do not collide with each other during the transport. The optoNCDT ILR sensors have the task of maintaining this minimum distance. Attached to each overhead conveyor, they measure the distance to the next one. These sensors measure using the “Time-of-Flight” principle which is ideal for such types of application.


Engagement length control in high performance screwdrivers

Industrial screwing in automated production systems is carried out by automatic screwdrivers. Apart from the torque, the engagement length is the most important criterion for the quality of the screwing operation. Generally, the engagement length, i.e. the screw-in depth, is determined with the aid of a mechanical end-stop or by using a limit switch. Consequently, once set, the engagement length cannot be changed during the production process. The inductive potentiometric displacement sensors in the VIP Series provide decisive advantages in this application. The continuous measurement of the engagement length from 0 to 70 mm enables screwing operations with various depths to be carried out at the same station.


Piston position in hydraulic valves

In hydraulic drives proportional and servo valves control the volume flow of hydraulic oil. In order that an exact dosage, and therefore a controlled movement is possible, displacement sensors are integrated into the valves. These sensors acquire the position of the control piston to regulate the volume flow. An accurate, non-contact and, above all,

dynamic position acquisition is required for this. An inductive displacement sensor from MICROEPSILON best fulfills these requirements.


Inline inspection of the dimensions of sand-lime bricks

After pressing the sand-lime brick blanks are placed onto a hardening carriage. Even smallest changes in the mixture, moisture, or in the pressing force lead to undefined growth of the bricks and make it difficult to observe the required brick height. A non-contacting laser-optical measuring system with down-stream evaluation logic is installed above the conveyor belt. This system measures the brick height and allows

automatic signalling and sorting of the products that exceed the upper or lower tolerance limits.


Measurement system for the flat setting on carding machines

The setting of the distance between the drum and the flat is crucial for carding quality of fibre, e.g. wool. Investigations have shown that manual gap settings with the gauge to the left and right on the carding machine are not equal and that with the machine at standstill slight deviations from the operating conditions arise. The remedy is provided

by a measuring flat rod (FCT) with two or three capacitive sensors which is exchanged for a flat rod. The sensors measure the distance to the drum via the drum width. The other distance signals are passed to the PC. The fully automatic measurement sequence eliminates erroneous settings and shortens the setup time. The inspection and documentation of the results facilitates practical quality assurance.


Dosing systems for high-viscosity glues

In the automotive industry piston dosing systems are used for glueing car windscreens and windows. These dosing systems supply the highviscosity glue to the application gun in an exactly controllable way. The volumetric flow control required for this purpose is achieved by means of a suitable long-stroke sensor in the hydraulic cylinder. The travel signal of the piston is differentiated, and the speed signal deducted from this is supplied to the closed-loop control circuit. The filling volume is determined through the position of the piston.


Piston ring- and piston secondary movement

Manufacturers of combustion engines require reliable data in order to determine the exact position of the piston, the piston rings and also of the existing pressure conditions. Using simulation tools, this data is primarily used to make reliable predictions about e.g. wear, friction and oil consumption. Furthermore, as well as design improvements, changes and failure analyses can also be developed. The eddyNCDT eddy current sensor measures the piston ring- and piston secondary movements at high accuracies.



En lastbilskran är ofta den bästa lösningen när last ska lyftas. Vid mobila lösningar spelar säkerheten också en viktig roll. En lastmomentbegränsare styr kranen. För att säkerställa maximal tillåten belastning måste kranens sidostöd vara helt utdragna. Om detta inte är möjligt på grund av platsbrist kan kranen inte tas i drift. För att mäta hur långt kranstöden är utdragna görs en beräkning av tillåten lastkapacitet. Således kan användningen av lastbilsmonterade kranar också säkerställas där utrymmet är begränsat.


Displacement sensor for washing machines

When the washing machine is loaded, the displacement sensor DRA measures how much the outer drum drops. It also measures the drum’s deflection during spin-drying. Due to the inductive measurement principle, the sensor provides absolute position measuring for static and dynamic processes. Operation and the washing result are

optimized by the load measurement. The displacement sensor provides an output signal proportional to the weight. This permits full utilization of the drum volume and helps to determine the required amount of detergent.


Övervakning av metallplåtars rörelse under pressprocessen

Mätningen utförs med hjälp av optoNCDT 1420. Flera givare placeras runt metallplåten, antingen i verktyget eller på sidan av verktyget. Givarna placeras så att laserstrålarna mäter på plåtens kanter som ligger mellan verktygets övre och undre del. Den lilla mätpunkten gör det möjligt att mäta i det extremt snäva mellanrumet, på mindre än en millimeter, mellan de två verktygsdelarna. De uppmätta värdena överförs till styrenheten analogt eller digitalt. Mätvärdena gör det möjligt att dra slutsatser om materialöverflödet och presskraften kan styras under pågående process, vilket minskar avfall, materialförbrukning, driftstopp och kostnader. Givarna är robusta och tål hög mekanisk belastning som vibrationer och stötar.


Measuring the distance from the road in motor racing

In motor racing, the smallest details can often make the difference between success and failure. Not only the ability of the driver, but also a perfect car setup are critical factors. In order to optimize the latter, ride-height sensors from Micro-Epsilon are used. Live data can be acquired during the race, which can be used to optimize car set up.

Mücke Motorsport relies on ILD1420 laser triangulation sensors from Micro-Epsilon when the distance from the road needs to be measured. The measurement values acquired are calculated using the damper travel of the vehicle. Therefore, the deformation of the tire in different road sections and situations can be determined.


Bredd på remsor vid trimning av metallband

Eftersom olika bredder ofta krävs vid framställning av metallremsor måste banden trimmas efter rullningsprocessen. Två knivar styrs elektroniskt och deras position kontrolleras av två optoNCDT-lasergivare från Micro-Epsilon. Med hjälp av mätvärdena så kan överensstämmelse med måldimensionerna undersökas automatiskt så att manuell kontroll inte längre krävs.


Lip Gap Measuring in Paper Manufacture

In paper manufacture the lip gap at the headbox determines the thickness of the paper. Paper machines usually have a lip width between 4 and 6 metres. The measuring task is a constantly monitoring the gap between the upper and lower lip as a quality relevant variable. To manage this application a non-contact eddy current displacement sensor is fitted either to one or better to both sides. A steel or aluminium target plate fitted opposite the sensor serves as a measuring target.


Tester for pneumatic actuator

So-called muscles are developed as alternatives to hydraulic cylinders. The hose made of rubber contracts when it is filled with compressed air. An in-house tester has been developed for testing this muscle. A sensor from the optoNCDT 2200 series in this tester monitors the contraction of the muscle.


Positionsmätning vid datortomografi (CT)

Högsta hastighet och upplösning som grund för bästa diagnostik och effektivitet spelar en allt viktigare roll i modern CT-utrustning. Oavsett om spiral, helical eller dubbelkälla används fortsätter kraven att öka. Speciellt gäller detta även längdmätningsutrustningen för den horisontella positionen. I denna applikation uppnår dragvajergivare från Micro-Epsilon en upplösning på upp till 0,001 % av mätområdet med maximal tillförlitlighet, lång livslängd och ett mycket gynnsamt pris i förhållande till prestanda.


Control and monitoring of the production sequence in a refinery

In the refinery crude oil is cracked by distillation to give petroleum, kerosene and diesel oil. In the fractional distillation column the crude oil is heated with superheated steam. The vapors and liquids released collect in the various stages of this column. To control and block the flow of gases and liquids the spindle drives of the numerous flow control valves are fitted with long-stroke sensors. An aluminum tube is used here as the

measurement object which is moved concentrically over the sensor coil rod without making physical contact. A displacement signal in the range 4 to 20 mA is provided for the aluminum tube position or for the valve position.


Measurement of the tilt angle on tilting trains

Through the application of tilting trains existing track can be traveled at higher speeds and consequently used more efficiently. Displacement sensors fitted to the front end of the vehicle determine the required degree of tilt of the coach body when taking bends in

order to compensate for the "arising sideward acceleration". This data is passed to the control units in the following coaches which then tilt the coach bodies appropriately. When taking a bend, the coach body on the vehicle is then tilted towards the inside of the bend with the aid of hydraulic cylinders.


Clutch wear in racing cars

Racing cars are stressed to the limits of their capabilities. It is not without reason that pioneering technologies are often first tested in racing cars before they find their way into mass production. The 24-hour race at Le Mans produces particularly high stress levels for drivers and materials. And in this respect the clutch is a component that is subjected to the highest stresses. Audi Sport therefore decided to monitor the clutch wear during the race to be able to adopt a less arduous pace at the right time or to even carry out a replacement. A displacement sensor from MICRO-EPSILONis used for this application. The sensor is located directly on the clutch release bearing and records both the normal stroke of the clutch as well as its wear.


Kalibrering av robotaxlar

Tack vare sin tillförlitlighet och hastighet har industrirobotar blivit oumbärliga i moderna produktionsanläggningar. Vid drifttagning och med jämna mellanrum inom ramen för kvalitetssäkring, måste robotaxlarna justeras. Elektroniska justeringsprober har sedan länge ersatt mekaniska prober. Mätproberna monteras på robotaxlarna och erhåller nollpunkten under axelrotationen med hjälp av en sondspets. Den integrerade elektroniken utvärderar sondsignalen och levererar en digital signal till robotens styrenhet.


Checking the accuracy of robot trajectories

The measurement of the trajectory accuracy or its reproducibility is carried out along a diagonal straight line in space. The robot moves the measuring head, which is fitted with sensors, along a steel rule. The deflection of the 2m long rule due to its own weight is compensated by software. Through the arrangement with six sensors both position and

orientation deviations are acquired simultaneously.


Positionskontroll på robotar

Införandet av den internationella standarden ISO 9283 kräver nya beröringsfria mätmetoder. Mätsystemet för positionsmätning är sammansatt av en mätkub med en definierad vikt, en sensor och ett stöd. Sensorn är utrustad med 6 stycken U15 virvelströmssensorer. Under mätningen flyttar roboten mätkuben in i sensorområdet. Data från virvelströmssensorerna skickas via ett snabbt gränssnitt till PC:n där den bearbetas. Mätfel på grund av linjäritet och lutning (parallellism mellan sensor och mätobjekt) och termiska effekter kompenseras i mätprogrammet.


Release of satellites into space

In order to be able to launch a satellite from the Areane rocket unobstructed into space, the nose cone section, together with the side shield, have to be separated from the main rocket immediately before the release of the satellite. Simultaneous and controlled activation of a series of preloaded springs, provide the propulsion force for the separation of the nose cone and side shield. It is of vital importance that the section separates itself in an absloute linear motion from the main rocket, with-out any non-linear tumbling movement that could cause damage to the satellite. The separation movement is controlled by 3 Draw-wire sensors mounted on the booster rocket.


Mätning av positionen på en slaggtransportör

Dragvajersensorer används för att minska stillaståendetiden för slaggtransportörer under lastning och lossning. De sitter installerade på tipp- och stödcylindern. På så sätt behöver man inte längre vänta på signalen från en gränslägesbrytare. Beroende på last kan transportören påbörja resan tidigare. Sensorn klarar även denna krävande miljö med hjälp av ett specialfodral och trådförlängningar.


Test facility for shock absorbers

After production the shock absorbers pass through a quality inspection facility on a transport system. Here, they are inspected for dimensional conformance, material faults and the presence of certain features. Two laser-based optical displacement sensors and appropriate CCD cameras enable the measurement of up to eight absorbers per minute. New types of absorbers can be quickly evaluated through the special teach-in routines. With the vertical and horizontal travel of the sensor, scanning of the circular contour, for example on the black rubber inserts on the knuckle eyes, is possible. Impermissible cracks or blow-outs are reliably detected. If quality defects are found, a shock absorber is provided with a fault printout on adhesive labels and included in the quality statistics.


Ram travel at a pill press

For the examination of cohesion in pharmaceutical mixtures under the influence of pressure non-contacting eddy-current sensors , which measure the travel of the upper in the area of the bottom dead center of the upper piston are used. The measurements are not affected through process-related formation of dust. In the movement range for pill pressing a force-travel-characteristic can be measured and evaluated by the additional use of strain-gauges.



The control piston in a valve controls the oil flow to the hydraulic cylinder. As the piston moves back and forth, drilled holes in the valve body are covered and uncovered. The piston is moved by a linear motor.

For this measurement, the sensor induNCDT series LVDT from Micro-Epsilon is used. The sensor is mounted on a pressure pipe located on the valve. In this pressure line a freely moving plunger is guided, which is permanently fixed to the spool. The sensor acquires the plunger through the metal of the pressure line and in this way determines the exact position of the spool. The plunger forms a passive position transmitter having a number of advantages. The measurement occurs without contact and is not subject to pressure, because the sensor is mounted outside of the pressurised region.


Inspection of valve cones

During the automated assembly of cylinder heads, the proper seating of the valve cones is monitored with optoNCDT laser-based triangulation sensors. This prevents valves from dropping into the combustion chamber. The axial adjustment to the relevant measurement position occurs via electric motor.


Washing machine displacement

Using an inductive displacement sensor, the displacement of the suds container during filling and the spinning stage can be calculated. The correct quantity of detergent can be calculated with the data obtained in this way. The speed for the spinning process is adapted in accordance with the displacement. The sensor is integrated in a friction damper using the measurement reducing VIP principle.


Displacement/timing measurement in the common rail injector

Diesel engines of the latest generation no longer have a diesel injection pump to supply fuel, but instead utilise the common rail principle. In order to optimise the injector configuration for the respective engine model it is necessary to know the exact displacement/time behavior of the needle valve. This information is provided by an eddy current sensor built intothe injector.


Active damping of liquid-cooled centrifuges

At certain configurations of speed, filling level and design parameters, liquid-filled industrial centrifuges tend to produce unstable running characteristics which can lead to failure of the centrifuge. The instability, which arises due to interaction between the fluid and the centrifuge, cannot be rectified by passive means (dampers), so therefore the instability is corrected actively with the aid of a magnetic bearing and suitable closed-loop controllers. The deflection of the rotor, which is acquired with two eddy-current sensors orientated at 90° to one another, is used as input information for the controller.


Low cost sensors for cylinder applications

Monitoring the movement of gas pressure or hydraulic cylinders is solved very elegantly using an eddy current sensor. This sensor is integrated in the cylinder. An aluminium ring is used as the target. The sensors are designed so that they easily withstand the pressure inside the cylinder. There are attractive sensor series in the range for this application.